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Ústavu českého jazyka a teorie komunikace

...pesky little particle? "A morpheme that is either lexically contentless, or behaves in a text in a manner that is anomalous with regard to its usual lexical content and is intractable to grammatical analysis. Therefore, it usually has a discourse or pragmatic function.Here are examples of English pesky particles, when used to relate more than one sentence: now, either, moreover."

zdroj:
net, J. Grimes 1975:93-94